October 1914 by Lyn Dyson

October 31, 2014

One Hundred Years Ago

October 1914

At the beginning of October the 1st battalion of the Wiltshire Regiment were on the march, having had five days rest and recuperation at Braine, followed by three quiet nights in the trenches there. They were on the move from 1st October to 12th October, with days of marching, some travel by train, and some in lorries. On reaching La Contoure they were involved in some action with the enemy before moving to the area of Neuve Chapelle. Here they were in the thick of things. During this early battle, the Germans used chemical weapons for the first time. It was a relatively harmless sneezing gas, which seems to have been ineffective, as there is no mention of it in the Wiltshire regimental diaries. After several days of heavy fighting, during which time the Germans left Neuve Chapelle but later returned, the Wiltshires headed towards the Belgian border. On 29th October they received a large consignment of mail, warm clothing, and gifts from friends at home. Estimated losses during the action at Neuve Chapelle were two officers killed; five wounded and seven missing. Of the other ranks there were 45 killed, 153 wounded and 350 missing. None of the killed were from our villages.

The 2nd battalion of the Wiltshire Regiment arrived in Zeebrugge on 7th October on board the SS Turcoman and the SS Cestrain. After several days marching they reached Beselare in Belgium, where they spent a week in the trenches, suffering heavy shelling from time to time, but managing to keep the enemy at bay. On 22nd October it was reported that the enemy losses were so great that the dead were piled in heaps. On 24th October at 5.30am the enemy attacked in superior force, and although they were at first driven back, they soon attacked again, and this time successfully, as the Wiltshires suffered heavy losses, including Frank Marks from Littleton Panell, and Oliver Burgess from Market Lavington.

Other losses during October included Andrew Stevens of Market Lavington, serving with the Dorsetshire Regiment, and Arthur Beaven Budgell of Littleton Panell who served with the 2nd Dragoon Guards. It was also during October that Herbert John Pinchin of Easterton died of wounds received on 22nd September at Mons.

Andrew Stevens killed in action 22nd October 1914

The first casualty of WW1 with a connection to this benefice was Andrew Stevens, or Stephens. He was born in Salisbury in 1895 and was the adopted son of Levi and Mary Ann Stevens of High Street, Easterton.  Levi was a travelling cutler, and Mary Ann’s father, Ruben Smith, was a travelling hawker. In 1881 Ruben and his family were living in a tent in Imber.

Andrew was probably the son of Consellata Smith, the sister of Mary Ann. She and two children were living with Levi and Mary Ann in Wilton in 1901. One of these children was George Smith born in 1895 in Salisbury.

George later took the name of Andrew Smith and in 1911 he was living with a cousin, Sidney Smith in Market Lavington. Sidney and Andrew were working as general labourers. Levi signed the census form on their behalf.

Andrew joined the army in 1913 at the age of 18. By this time he had changed his name to Stevens. He served in Northern Ireland with the Dorsetshire Regiment, but on the outbreak of war his regiment was sent to France, and they arrived in Le Havre on 16th August 1914. Within a few days they had reached Rue du Marais, close to Labassee.

Early in the morning of 22nd October, whilst Andrew’s battalion was engaged in digging trenches, they were attacked by the Germans. They were too close for any strategic withdrawal, and the trenches were soon overrun by the enemy. At the end of the day seven men were killed, 22 were wounded, and 107 men were missing.

At first Andrew was listed as a prisoner of war, but it later became evident that this was not the case and he was recorded as killed in action either on 22nd October, or some time later from wounds received. His body was never found and he is remembered on the memorial at Le Touret.

Francis Herbert Marks killed in action 24th October 1914

Frank Marks was born in Bulkington in 1892, the son of George Marks and his wife Sarah Hobbs. George came from Bulkington, but Sarah was born in West Lavington. They had nine children.

In 1911 the family was living in Little Cheverell. George was working as a cowman, and their three eldest sons, including Frank, were all working as labourers on the dairy farm. The family moved to The Gables, 74 High Street, Littleton Panell around the time of WW1.

Frank served with the 2nd battalion of the Wiltshire regiment, which landed in Zeebrugge on 7th October 1914. They were engaged in the first battle of Ypres, and Frank was killed in action on 24.10.1914 at Beselare, Belgium. Superior numbers of German forces attacked the trenches at 5.30am. They were initially repelled, with heavy German losses, but a second wave of attack was more successful, leading to continuous fighting for more than two hours. The Germans managed to breach the defences, and the Wiltshires were forced to retreat with the loss of sixty six men, and many more were captured.

Frank has no known grave and is remembered on the Menin Gate at Ypres and the West Lavington war memorial.

Oliver Burgess killed in action 24th October 1914

Very little is known about Oliver. He seems to have eluded the birth registration records and the census returns. The most likely reason for this is that he changed his name at some point in his life. He is believed to have been born in Market Lavington around 1879. There were several Burgess families living there at the time, including photographer Alfred Burgess in the High Street at Market Lavington; shepherd George Burgess living in the Hollow, with a large brood of children, an elderly maltster Jacob Burgess living in Stobbert Road, and an engine driver, Joseph Burgess living in White Street. None of them had a son called Oliver that I can find.

When he was eighteen, Oliver enlisted in the 3rd Wiltshire Regiment, but he was discharged after twelve days because he was unfit for the drill training. He was said to have been of good character. At the time of his enlistment he was working as an agricultural labourer in Seend. His next of kin was recorded as his Uncle, Mr Merritt of Market Lavington. This was probably John Merritt, a blacksmith living in White Street, Market Lavington. I have been unable to find any connection between any of John Merritt’s sisters and Oliver.

In October 1914, Oliver was serving as a regular soldier in the 2nd battalion of the Wiltshire regiment. He was living at Great Chalfield near Bradford on Avon prior to his enlistment.

Oliver was killed in the same action as Francis Herbert Marks. In the confusion of the time it was at first believed that he was a prisoner of war, but he was later listed as killed in action.

Oliver is remembered on the Menin Gate at Ypres.

Arthur Beaven Budgell killed in action 31st October 1914

Arthur, or Beaven as he was known in the family, was born in 1894 in Fordingbridge, Hampshire. His father, Eli Budgell was a coachman, originally from Yeovil in Somerset. Eli’s wife was Emma Marlow, and she came from Fordingbridge, the daughter of a miller.

Beaven was the youngest child of Eli and Emma. They lived at A Becketts Cottage in Littleton Panell in 1911, so it seems likely that Eli was the coachman for the Holloway family who were living at A Becketts at that time. Beaven had a sister and three older brothers.

Beaven was a regular soldier prior to the outbreak of World War One. He enlisted into the 2nd Dragoon Guards, otherwise known as Queen’s Bays, and was with the regiment in Aldershot in 1911. At the outbreak of World War 1 his regiment was part of the original British Expeditionary Force, arriving in France on 16th August 1914. The regiment formed a part of the 1st Cavalry division, and they were charged with defending the ridge at Messines, to prevent the Germans from advancing to Ypres.

On 31st October, the Germans began an attack at 4.30am. After nearly five hours of heavy fighting, they succeeded in breaking through the British line, and the British were forced to retreat, with a house to house battle as they made their way out of the town. It was during this battle that Beaven was killed, near Hollebeke.

Beaven has no known grave, but is remembered on the Menin Gate Memorial, and the West Lavington war memorial.

A lily pot

October 30, 2014

We think of Edward Box as being the man who had the brick works in Market Lavington for most of the second half of the 19th century. And that is true, but of course, it was actually the brick, tile and pottery works and it is a pot that we’ll look at today – a pot designed for growing a lily.

Lily pot made by Edward Box of Market Lavington in about 1880

Lily pot made by Edward Box of Market Lavington in about 1880

Here is the pot and we can see straight away it does have a broken rim and that broken off part is missing and may well have been lost 100 or more years ago.

Anything made by Box of Market Lavington must date from that second half of the nineteenth century and we estimate this one as from around 1880.

The image above shows it has been decorated by two horizontal lines around the pot but it also has a vertical line motif running right round the shoulder of it.

Lily pot decoration

Lily pot decoration

Not surprisingly, we can see this pot has suffered other weather related flaking in the past – but how good to have something from our brickworks that is definitely not a brick or tile.

 

 

Wedding of Mary Ethel Cooper and William Blake

October 29, 2014

We have recently been given copies of three photos of the wedding of William and Ethel (as she was known). The wedding took place in 1920. One of the pictures, with the largest group of guests we have seen before and you can click here to see it.

Today we’ll look at a smaller group and ponder on who the people might be.

Wedding of Bill Blake and Ethel Cooper - Market Lavington - 1920

Wedding of Bill Blake and Ethel Cooper – Market Lavington – 1920

The location is clear here. It is taken outside Number 2 Parsonage Lane which was the home of the Cooper family. We know the bride and groom and we also know that the young bridesmaid was a niece of the groom. We do not know who the other bridesmaids were.

But perhaps we are most interested in the two older men. We guess they are the fathers of bride and groom – but which is which. The one on the right looks utterly fed up with the whole business. If he is Jacob Bolter Cooper, father of the bride, he’d have been about 80 by then. That was a good old age back in 1920. He may well have had enough. John Blake, father of the groom was around 70. The mothers of both parties to the marriage were already deceased.

So, once again, we appeal for help in identifying, particularly the two men.

Acetylene Lamps

October 28, 2014

 

Our curator remembers a pun from his student days which went, ‘she was only a welder’s daughter but she had acetylene legs’!

At Market Lavington Museum we have acetylene lamps and here is one of them.

Acetylene headlamp used on a motorbike by the Williams family of Easterton

Acetylene headlamp used on a motorbike by the Williams family of Easterton

This is a motorbike headlamp and has the sort of clamp to allow it to fit on a standard lamp bracket. There’s a container for calcium carbide at the bottom and a drip feed water tank above it. The acetylene gas produced is fed to the burner where it produced a bright flame which was ‘concentrated’ by a reflective mirror to give a good beam of light out of the front.

This lamp was owned by the Williams family of Easterton and was cleared out of a barn at Court Close farm and given to the museum. It has suffered some of the ravages of time and the metal body is somewhat pitted and corroded, But it is still a lovely item and reminds us that electricity was not always king.

These days, with the growth in LED headlamps, maybe we should be finding a local example of a filament bulb headlamp to save.

Doctor Donald Hood

October 27, 2014

We were recently asked if we knew anything of Dr Hood, born Market Lavington, who featured in a book about the Duke of Rutland. We had to find out more, so here is what we now know.

We started by finding Donald on the 1901 census.

Donald Hood found on the 1901 census

Donald Hood found on the 1901 census

So there is Donald W C Hood, consulting physician at 43 Green Street, Westminster aged 53 born Market Lavington, married to Alice and with several children.

This enabled us to find Donald on the 1851 census.

Donald Hood, aged 3 in 1851

Donald Hood, aged 3 in 1851

And there he is, aged 3 and living in Clapham in South London but born in Lavington. Donald’s father, William Charles was a doctor of medicine in practice and his mother was Jane. Donald had a younger sister and brother, both born in Lavington. The younger brother has been given the forename of Willett and this offers a clue to the family. Jane, his mother was born Jane Willett and she married William Charles Hood in the Devizes district (so probably at Lavington) in the summer of 1846. Jane, we assume, was a relative of Robert Willett who owned the Fiddington Asylum.

The following extract is from http://www.british-history.ac.uk/ .

Fiddington House at Market Lavington was originally intended for pauper patients. In 1829 the justices licensed Robert Willett, a non-medical man, for the reception of about 72 patients; the medical attendant visited the house twice a week. The visitors reported the house to be clean and comfortable and that restraint when used was of ‘the mildest and most simple nature’. At a later date the Lunacy Commissioners reported that the use of restraint was habitual. The original asylum consisted of detached buildings mostly of one story, some with stone floors and without ceilings. Considerable overcrowding occurred around 1846 when about 200 patients were received although the premises were only licensed for 175 patients. Charles Hitchcock received the licence in 1850 and soon after the opening of the county asylum the pauper patients were transferred. The number of private patients for which Fiddington was licensed in 1862 was 24 male and 26 female. Reports on the house became more favourable and in 1882 the accommodation was described as plain but comfortable at an average cost of £100 a year.

We believe that Dr Hood, the father of Donald was that Medical attendant who worked with Robert Willett. Further evidence comes from http://munksroll.rcplondon.ac.uk/

Sir William Charles Hood

b.1824 d.4 Jan 1870 MD St And FRCP Edin FRCP (1863) JP

Charles Hood was born at Lambeth, the son of a doctor, and sent to school at Brighton. He was admitted to Trinity College, Dublin, at the age of seventeen, but acquired his professional training at Guy’s Hospital, qualifying in 1845 and taking the St. Andrews degree in the year following. He held an early appointment as resident physician to a private asylum, Fiddington House, Devizes, but was soon made the first medical superintendent of Colney Hatch. In 1852 he obtained the same post at the Bethlem Hospital, where for ten years he worked indefatigably for the improvement of the patients’ conditions, and particularly for the segregation of the criminal insane. He resigned on appointment as a Lord Chancellor’s visitor in lunacy. He was elected treasurer of Bridewell and Bethlem Hospitals in 1868, the year of his knighthood. He died in the treasurer’s house at Bridewell.

So, Donald was born in Lavington whilst his father was medical superintendant at the Fiddington Asylum.

But Donald causes confusion by not being clear about his birth place. The 1871 census has his birth place just recorded as Wiltshire. In 1881 the enumerator has written Potten. In 1891 his birthplace is given as Fiddington. Maybe Donald was confused because until the 1870s Fiddington had been part of West Lavington and various land transfers took place which saw it transferred to Market Lavington. Donald would not have remembered his time in Wiltshire and may not fully have grasped the changes in parish boundaries which affected his birthplace.

However, in 1911, the first census to be actually written by householders, Donald has made a clear entry of Potterne as his birthplace.

Donald was certainly involved in medical controversy as highlighted by his views on appendicitis. This article comes from the Ryde Social History Group at http://www.rshg.org.uk/

In 1910 the English surgeon Dr Donald Hood caused considerable worldwide interest with his assertion of the infectious nature of appendicitis.

A distinguished surgeon, who has had great experience of appendicitis, has been suggesting in the columns of the Lancet that the complaint is contagious. He points out how much more frequent and severe are cases of appendicitis than they used to be, and how often the members of the same household are seized with it in quick succession, and surgeons are attacked by it after operating on patients suffering from this complaint. It is now suggested that there must be a particular microbe that causes appendicitis, which on this hypothesis is set up by contagion. It seems rather difficult to suppose that there is a microbe which acts only on the appendix, but now that the suggestion has been made, pathologists will be on the look-out for the hypothetical microbe, and if it really exists it should not be long before it is discovered. Unhappily, the surgeons of the day are afforded numerous opportunities of detecting it by the frequency of operations for the removal of the appendix.  Source: Isle of Wight Observer 18 June 1910

We now turn to the part Donald played in the strange story of the Duke of Rutland and we have an article published in the Leicester Mercury for October 25th 2012

When historian Catherine Bailey was invited to chronicle the history of the Duke of Rutland’s family during the First World War, she uncovered a secret which had remained hidden for more than 60 years. Reporter Peter Warzynski talks to the author about her discoveries…
When John Henry Montagu Manners, the 9th Duke of Rutland, died of pneumonia on April 22, 1940, he was remembered as a soldier who fought with comrades on the Western Front.
His name and rank formed the centrepiece at the chapel at Belvoir Castle as a tribute to his virtuous war record.
But the Duke had spent his final days locked in a dank room at the castle, frantically trying to erase any record of his involvement in the Great War.
In all, 249 men from the Belvoir estate were killed fighting on the frontline in France between 1914 and 1918. The Duke was never among them.
Despite leading the Remembrance Day parade through Rutland year after year and presiding over the ceremony, his supposed military service was a sham – but not one of his own making.
His mother, Violet Manners, the 8th Duchess of Rutland, used her considerable persuasive powers and position to approach Lord Kitchener and Sir John French, the Commander in Chief of the Western Front, to keep her son from the fighting.
Eventually, she rigged a series of medical examinations and dashed any hopes John had of battling in the trenches in Ypres with his regiment – the 4th Battalion Leicestershire (the Tigers).
In the years before he died, ashamed of his sham military service, the Duke became reclusive as he obsessed over the family’s meticulous records.
His aim was to erase any reference to his military past and rewrite the family’s history – and he succeeded.
However, the truth did not come to light until historian Catherine Bailey began combing through the records in 2008.
“The archive was prist-ine,” she said. “It went all the way back to the 12th century and included tens of-thousands of documents.
“But when I began studying them, I noticed gaps.”
On April 22, 1940, the Leicester Mercury reported “with great regret that the Duke of Rutland, head of the ancient family of Manners, died at his seat”.
The article paid tribute to the 53-year-old, stating: “He went to the front in February 1915, serving with the rank of Captain.”
Catherine said: “The family had no idea John had altered documents and letters and rewritten history. It was only when I unearthed a small trunk containing more letters I was able piece together the clues and unravel what had happened.”
Catherine first entered the Muniment Room at Belvoir Castle – where the family archives are kept – in 2008, after the Duke and Duchess of Rutland agreed to let her research the family for a book about the First World War.
“My original idea was to write about a great family during the Great War and the Duke and Duchess agreed to take part. But after just a few months, I noticed things were missing from the records,” she said
Catherine found three gaps – 1894, 1909 and 1915 – in the otherwise perfect chronological archive.
“It soon became a detective story,” she said.
The first gap related to the death of John’s brother, Haddon.
“When John was eight his brother died, but the reason for the death was not what the family believed had happened to him.”
Catherine stops there. “I don’t want to give too much of the book away,” she explains.
“John was banished from Belvoir Castle on the day of Haddon’s funeral and spent most of his childhood years estranged from his parents.
“That event is the key to his character and shaped the rest of his life.”
Haddon’s death shook Violet, his mother, who made no secret of the fact he was her favourite.
But the tragic event had further implications. Were anything to happen to John, she would lose her money and privileges when her husband – the 8th Duke – died.
His title and estate would be handed over to his half-brother, leaving Violet penniless.
Catherine believes the Duchess’s efforts to keep her only son from the frontline were motivated by neurosis rather than love.
“She did everything she could to prevent him from fighting on the frontline, because the most likely outcome of being on the Western Front was being killed,” she said.
It was true John was a Captain in the 4th Battalion, Leicestershire Regiment before it was absorbed into the 46th North Midland Division.
He was appointed aide-de-camp to General Edward Montagu-Stuart-Wortley, a role which included instructing soldiers in Britain.
However, when he was sent to Ypres, France, in 1915, much to his frustration, he only witnessed the Great War from the safety of Goldfish Chateaux, the Army’s regional headquarters.
John’s exclusion from the carnage of the frontline was due to his mother’s relentless interference.
Violet wrote letters to GHQ (General Headquarters) and General Wortley and even pressured her daughter into seducing a man whom she thought would be able to influence senior officers.
She finally turned to family physician Dr Donald Hood to give false evidence about John’s health, claiming he had recurring dysentery.
“The more I got to know him, the more his story became a tragic one,” said Catherine. “For the first year of the war he did all he could to fight with the men of the 4th Leicesters.
“But it was his mother’s meddling and constant undermining that finally got him returned home.
“He spent the rest of life ashamed and his final years locked away trying to erase his past.”
The Secret Rooms, published by Penguin, is out on November 1.

Donald Hood died in 1924 in the London area.

Buttons

October 26, 2014

Peter has lived in Market Lavington for fifty years. He is a true, wonderful craftsman working in wood (mostly) and manufacturing bespoke furniture and cabinets for all sorts of major customers from his workshop in the village. He’s now well past retirement age and doesn’t do so much work now.

Some 30 or so years ago, he was persuaded by a niece to try selling at craft fairs. He was able to make use of offcuts of timber to produce all sorts of items, ranging from miniature furniture (not toys as he is still keen to say) through puzzles and right down to very small items.

He was recently kind enough to give us some buttons he made from yew wood. And truly lovely they are.

Buttons made of yew by Peter in Market Lavington

Buttons made of yew by Peter in Market Lavington

As you’d expect, every button is different for each one has been hand crafted by Peter. They show the yew off so well.

image004

These buttons, of course, are now kept for posterity. They can remind future residents of the village that crafts and trades still went on here even into the age of computers.

We’d like to thank Peter – a quiet and retiring man – for sharing some of his work with us.

Number 2 Parsonage Lane

October 25, 2014

We have commented before that Parsonage Lane is not well represented in photos at the museum. Just recently this lack was slightly redressed with some photos at Number 2 – generally of a wedding but with one that showed the house. It has a big crease across the photo.

The photo was found in the house by the present occupant. He’s been in the house for fifty years and has allowed us to make copies. It stands to reason that the owner was not the original owner and he knows nothing about dates or people. But despite that crease, here is a lovely photo.

Number 2 Parsonage Lane in Market Lavington - possibly in about 1912

Number 2 Parsonage Lane in Market Lavington – possibly in about 1912

The house still looks much the same now. We can only guess at the age of this photo which could be the 1910s to 1930s.

At that time the house was occupied by George Cooper and family. George was a coal merchant. He married Mabel Brown in 1909. The family were at Parsonage Lane for the 1911 census and were there as shown on electoral rolls in 1926 and 1939. George died in 1956, still living at Parsonage Lane. Mabel followed in 1968 but she had moved to a smaller house by then.

It seems likely that the family here are George and Mabel with two of the children.

Are these people George and Mabel Cooper with two of their children?

Are these people George and Mabel Cooper with two of their children?

The two children look to be girls. If all our guesses are right this would suggest this is an earlier photo.

Winifred was born in 1910 and is on that 1911 census. Irene was born in 1912. The next two children were Herbert in 1914 and Henry in 1919. Gwendoline May was born in 1921 and finally there was Robert in 1926.

But we’ll emphasise again, this is guess work. We have no other photo of George and family for comparison and this could have been visitors at the home.

And you may have guessed it by now – we hope you can help us with a positive identification.

The Spring in 1926

October 24, 2014

Market Lavington was a very different place in 1926. The built up area was much smaller with no housing in the Grove Farm area, no Bouverie Drive or Canada Rise, no Fiddington Clay estate to name but a few.

And the road that linked Market and West Lavington – The Spring – was just a country lane devoid of housing as shown in this card.

The Spring, Market Lavington on a card posted in 1926

The Spring, Market Lavington on a card posted in 1926

Actually, there is one house in this photo, almost lost in the trees on the right.

 

Chimneys in the trees.

Chimneys in the trees.

We can just see a bit of the roof and the chimney stacks. From this we know that we are looking towards Market Lavington. Here’s the present day view.

A present day view shows the same chimneys

A present day view shows the same chimneys

We can still see the chimneys on that house on the right which help to fix the location and we can see we are just by the entrance to Lavington School with Pavilion Gardens and then the Alban Estate

It’s a totally different scene

The back of the card posted in 1926

The back of the card posted in 1926

The old postcard was posted from Littleton Panell in 1926.

A World War II saw

October 23, 2014

 

Recently we were given a saw which we find interesting. It came from Vicarage Farm in Easterton but clearly has a military origin.

The saw comes in what looks like a small kit bag – a canvas pouch.

image002

Military saw pouch

Inside the lid of the pouch it is marked with the war department arrow symbol. It is very faded.

The War Department arrow head can just be made out

The War Department arrow head can just be made out

Inside the pouch there are the makings of a substantial two man saw, capable of sawing down quite substantial trees.

Military saw pouch

The contents of this saw pouch

Here we have the rolled up saw blade, two double handles and a saw set for getting the angles of the teeth correct. That should have a wooden handle as well and there should also be a file for sharpening the teeth.

With the items out of the pouch we can see it is purpose built for this saw.

pockets in the pouch

Pockets in the pouch

Here we can see the pockets for the four handles and the two maintenance tools. The blade fits neatly in the middle.

Assembled, the saw looks like this.

image010

The blade has a cutting length of 42 inches – that’s well over a metre.

The teeth are big, bold and sharp.

image012

We believe this item to be of World War 2 age but seek advice from any expert in the field of military saws.

A Hopkins Bill Head

October 22, 2014

We have a wonderful collection of Hopkins bill heads. Retailers got bill heads on the cheap by having a manufacturers advert on them – like this one below.

A Hopkins of Market Lavington bill of 1913

A Hopkins of Market Lavington bill of 1913

This one dates from 1913 so is just over the 100 years old as this is written. Of course we can marvel at the price of what appears to be a range back then with a smaller one at 18/5 (92p) and the portable one at £1-16-0 or £1.80 in present decimal coinage.

But it is the advert at the head of this bill that really appeals and recalls a bygone age.

These days the electric lamp is just about everywhere in the UK but back in 1913 most smaller places did not have mains electricity and locally produced gas could be used for lighting – particularly by the well to do folks. Most gas does not burn particularly brightly and so an incandescent mantle was used. When heated by the burning gas these mantles produced a wonderfully bright light. And the advert tells us that if we used the Veritas mantle we’d be quids in because we’d get our light burning less gas.

image003

And these points are pressed home by a flag waving Boy Scout.

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A problem with mantles was that once put into use they became very fragile. It didn’t take much of a knock to damage them beyond use so advertising as strongest was, no doubt, a good ploy. It rather looks as though our flag waving lad has broken the lamp cover but the mantle is still there and intact.

A lovely item here which says much about life 100 years ago. These days heating, cooking and lighting are all ‘at the flick of a switch’. It was so different back then.

 

 


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